बुद्ध, buddha

The term can have several meanings at once, so in translation from Sanskrit, Buddha is possible to translate literally as "awakened" or "enlightened". It makes sense to distinguish notion of Buddha:

  • as a principle of enlightened (primary) state of mind — bodhi (Sanskrit बोधि), it is a derivative of the verb budh (to awaken, to conscious) and also any being who achieved this state. According to Buddhist doctrine, Buddha is anyone who has  realized dharma and is fully freed from suffering and cycles of rebirth (samsara).
  • as the name of Buddha Shakyamuni (Gautama Buddha, Siddhartha) — historical person, prince of Shakyas king’s line, the legendary founder of Buddhism, preacher and philosopher, who lived around VI - IV centuries BC in India. Even In his youth Siddhartha, disappointed in worldly life, became hermit. He left the royal chambers and his family to seek liberation. Being ascetic he learned at different times from famous teachers — Arada Kalama and Udraka Ramaputra. Subsequently, having created his own teaching, Buddha preached it around all Bharata during 45 years, having experienced the highest spiritual awakening under the tree Bodhi.


Buddha formulated his teaching into four basic principles, named "Four Noble Truths" (chatvari aryasatyani): 

  • Truth on suffering (dukha)
  • Truth on emergence (cause) of suffering
  • Truth on stopping of suffering
  • Truth on path leading to stopping of suffering 

He indicated his view as Noble Eightfold Path or Median Path, i.e. avoiding extremes of asceticism and worldly pleasures, the goal of which is the final realized True in own Self and achievement of enlightenment. Buddha’s teaching contradicted orthodox Brahmanism since it denied the necessity of following the caste system (varnas), as well as effectiveness of numerous sacrifices for total enlightenment (nirvana) achievement.

In Vajrayana Doctrine (of tantric buddhism), there is an idea of five Dhyani Buddhas:

  • Vairochana
  • Akshobhya
  • Ratnasambhava
  • Amitabha
  • Amoghasiddhi

They personify by themselves five supreme aspects (anthropomorphic symbols) of the mind nature of Adi-Buddha (primary Buddha).